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The planet is facing social-environmental crises that include climate change, biodiversity loss, mass extinctions, and unsustainable consumption and production. These issues are rooted in hegemonic patriarchy and built on practices of continued inequity. Wildlife tourism could address some of these issues, but instead it is exacerbated by social-ecological challenges and various levels of hierarchical injustices. The SDGs were intended to facilitate solutions to these global problems. Yet, they do not address the fundamental underpinnings of the anthropocentric injustices exacerbating these systemic challenges, in part because they were generated via the hegemonic processes that allow for these injustices to continue. Using a transdisciplinary intersectional ecofeminist approach to analyze the SDGs, we propose a theory that adopts a posthuman ethic—Wildlife Equity as a foundation to guide principles and apply to policies that rigorously illuminate the continued injustices that are driving the decline of livelihoods for all sentient beings on Earth.

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Carol S. Kline is a Professor and the Director of the Hospitality and Tourism Management program at Appalachian State University. Her research interests have historically focused on topics such as foodie segmentation, craft beverages, agritourism, tourism entrepreneurship, and tourism in developing economies, however now it solely focuses on animal ethics.
Hindertje (Hin) Hoarau-Heemstra, PhD, is an associate professor at the faculty of social sciences at Nord University in Bodø, Norway. Dr. Heemstra’s research focusses on tourism community development and explores innovation, sustainability and relationships between humans and other-than-humans.
Christina T. Cavaliere, PhD, is a conservation social scientist within the Human Dimensions of Natural Resources Department at Colorado State University and is director of the Tourism and Conservation lab. Dr. Cavaliere’s research explores socio-ecological systems including intersectional power structures within climate change, sustainability, human-wildlife relationships, governance, and tourism.

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Article first published online: November 3, 2022


  1. sustainable development goals
  2. wildlife tourism
  3. wildlife equity
  4. transdisciplinary ecofeminist approach

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Published online: November 3, 2022



Carol S. Kline
Hospitality and Tourism Management, Walker College of Business, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC, USA
Hindertje (Hin) Hoarau-Heemstra
Faculty of Social Sciences, Nord University, Bodø, Nordland, Norway
Christina T. Cavaliere
Human Dimensions of Natural Resources, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA


Carol S. Kline, Hospitality and Tourism Management, Walker College of Business, Appalachian State University, 4078 Peacock Hall, Boone, NC 28608, USA. Email: [email protected]

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