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The Motif of Wonder in the Gospel of Mark

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1. G. Theissen, The Miracle Stories of Early Christian Tradition (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1983), pp. 69-71.
2. For example, 1 Kgs 18.39 is clearly a reaction of wonder, although none of the usual lexical terms are used.
3. R. Pesch, Das Markusevangelium (HTKNT; Freiburg: Herder, 1977), II, pp. 150-52.
4. K. Tagawa, Miracles et Evangile (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1966), pp. 92-121.
5. G. Bertram, 'θαμβος, θαμβεω, εκθαμβος, εκθαμβεομαι', TDNT, III, pp. 4-7.
6. R.W Stacy, 'Fear in the Gospel of Mark' (PhD thesis, Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, 1979).
7. T.R. Dwyer, 'The Motif of Wonder in the Gospel of Mark' (PhD thesis, University of Aberdeen, 1990).
8. Matthew does not use έκθαμβέομι, θαμβέομαι, έκθαύμαζω, τρόμος, έκστασις or έκϕοβος, Luke does not use έκθαμβέομαι, θαμβέομαι, έκθαύ μαζω, έκϕοβος, τρόμος.
9. Only three times in Vita Apollonii, once in Lucian's Alexander, for example.
10. A. Momigliano, 'The Second Book of Maccabees', Classical Philology 70 (1975), p. 83.
11. W. Freedman, 'The Literary Motif: A Definition and Evaluation', Novel 4 (1971), pp. 123-31.
12. Among scholars who have stated this thought are A.M. Ambrozic. TheHidden Kingdom: A Redaction-Critical Study on the References to the Kingdom ofGod in Mark's Gospel (Washington, DC: The Catholic Biblical Association of America, 1972), p. 247; W. Kelber, The Kingdom in Mark: A New Place and a NewTime (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1974), p. 3, where he says that Mk 1.14-15 has programmatic consequences and is the key to the Markan Jesus' life and death, cf. pp. 11, 42; E. Schweizer, The Good News according to Mark (London: SPCK, 1987), p. 44, where 1.14-15 is a caption to the whole Gospel; D. Dormeyer, 'Die Kompositionsmetaphor "Evangelium Jesu Christi, des Sohnes Gottes" Mk. 1:1. Ihre theologische und literarische Aufgabe in der Jesus-Biographie des Markus'. NTS 33 (1987), p. 46 n. 18 says the central position of the kingdom proclamation in Mark is 'unbestritten'; D.O. Via, The Ethics of Mark's Gospel: In the Middle ofTime (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1985), p. 77; B. Mack, 'The Kingdom of God Sayings in Mark', Foundation and Facets Forum 3 (1987), p.41; F. Mussner, 'Gottesherrschaft und Sendung Jesu nach Mk. 1:14f', in Praesentia Salutis:Gesammelte Studien zu Fragen und Themen des Neuen Testaments (Dusseldorf: Patmos Verlag, 1967), pp. 91, 95, 97-98; G. Rau, 'Das Markusevangelium. Komposition und Intention der ersten Darstellung christlicher Mission', ANRW II.25.3, pp. 2051, 2135, 2230; A. Yarbro Collins, 'Narrative, History and Gospel: A General Response', Semeia 43 (1988), p. 148; D. Rhoads and D. Michie, Mark asStory (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1982), p. 73; C.S. Mann, Mark: A New Translationwith Introduction and Commentary (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1986), pp. 140, 154; J. Gnilka, Das Evangelium nach Markus (Cologne: Benziger Verlag; Einsiedeln: Neukirchener Verlag, 1978), pp. 64-65, and Pesch, Markusevangelium, I, p. 72.
13. Here, I used the criteria developed by E.J. Pryke, Redactional Style in theMarcan Gospel: A Study of Syntax and Vocabulary as Guides to Redaction in Mark (SNTSMS, 33; Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978); C.H. Turner, 'Marcan Usage: Notes Critical and Exegetical, on the Second Gospel', JTS 25 (1923), pp. 378-86; 26 (1924-25), pp. 12-20, 145-56, 225-40, 337-46; 27 (1925-26), pp. 58-62; 28 (1926-27), pp. 9-30, 349-62; 29 (1927-28), pp. 275-89, 346-61; R. Stein, 'What is Redaktionsgeschichte?', JBL 88 ( 1969), pp. 45-56; and 'The Proper Methodology for Ascertaining a Marcan Redaction History', NovT 13 (1971), pp. 181-98; F. Neirynck, Duality in Mark: Contributions to the Study of the MarkanRedaction (Leuven: Leuven University Press, 1972); and D. Peabody, Mark asComposer (Macon, GA: Mercer University Press, 1987).
14. Especially with the use of έπιτιμάν in v. 25. Cf. H.C. Kee, 'The Terminology of Mark's Exorcism Stories', NTS 14 (1967-68), pp. 232-46.
15. Gnilka, Das Evangelium, II, p. 54.
16. W. Wrede, The Messianic Secret (Cambridge: James Clarke, 1971 [1901]), pp. 96, 276.
17. H. Koester, 'History and Development of Mark's Gospel (From Mark to Secret Mark and "Canonical Mark")', in B. Corley (ed.), Colloquy on NewTestament Studies (Macon, GA: Mercer University Press, 1983), pp. 35-57.
18. This is the problem of Stacy (Fear in the Gospel) and A. Lincoln, 'The Promise and the Failure—Mark 16:7,8', JBL 108 (1989), esp. pp. 286-87.
19. R. Gundry, Mark: A Commentary on his Apology for the Cross (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1993).
20. D.A. Lee-Pollard, 'Powerlessness as Power: A Key Emphasis in the Gospel of Mark?', SJT 40 ( 1987), pp. 173-88.
21. Note the quotation by Erich Klostermann of Origen in Das Markusevangelium (HNT; Tübingen: Mohr [Paul Siebeck], 1971), p. 169.
22. I view 16.8 as the intended ending of the Gospel, and the silence as provisional and temporary, cf. Dwyer, The Motif, pp. 343-54.
23. Lincoln, 'The Promise', pp. 286-87.
24. R. Funk, The Poetics of Biblical Narrative (Sonoma, CA: Polebridge Press, 1988), pp. 23, 127-28.
25. Most recently, J.D. Kingsbury, Conflict in Mark (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1989), pp. 23, 98, 100, and also, for example, Kelber, The Kingdom in Mark, p. 49, Wrede, Messianic Society, pp. 97-103. Others holding this view include Rhoads and Michie, Mark as Story, p. 185; F. Watson, 'The Social Function of Mark's Secrecy Theme', JSNT 24 (1985),p. 52; G. Bilezikian, The Liberated Gospel:A Comparison of the Gospel of Mark and Greek Tragedy (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1977), pp. 61, 63; U. Luz, 'The Secrecy Motif and Marcan Christology', in C. Tuckett (ed.), The Messianic Secret (Philadelphia: Fortress Press; London: SPCK, 1983), p. 84; and E. Klostermann, Das Markusevangelium (HNT; Tübingen: Mohr [Paul Siebeck], 1971), p. 46.
26. See Dwyer, The Motif, pp. 272-79.
27. Tagawa, Miracles, p. 115, with reference to C.H. Bird, 'Some γάρ Clauses in St Mark's Gospel', JTS 4 (1953), pp. 171-87. Bird cites Mk 1.16-17, 5.42 and 10.45 as places where γάρ cannot explain the previous sentence. Cf. A.T. Robertson, A Grammar of the Greek New Testament in the Light of Historical Research (Nashville: Broadman Press, 1934), p. 1190.
28. E. Trocmé, 'Is there a Marcan Christology?', in B. Lindars and S.S. Smalley (eds.), Christ and the Spirit in the New Testament: Studies in Honour of C.F.D. Moule (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1973), p. 12.
29. F. Kermode, The Genesis of Secrecy (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1979), pp. 33-34.
30. An earlier version of this paper was presented at the 1991 Midwest regional meeting of the Society of Biblical Literature.

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Article first published online: July 21, 2016
Issue published: July 1995

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Issue published: July 1995
Published online: July 21, 2016

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Timothy Dwyer
Anderson University School of Theology Anderson, IN46012

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