Skip to main content
Intended for healthcare professionals
Restricted access
Other
First published online August 25, 2010

Cytokine and chemokine profiles in neuromyelitis optica: significance of interleukin-6

Abstract

Background: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is assumed to be immunologically distinct from multiple sclerosis (MS). Adequate studies about cytokines and chemokines in NMO have been lacking.
Objective: To investigate the contribution of cytokines/chemokines in the pathogenesis of NMO.
Methods: We measured 27 cytokines/chemokines and Th17 cell-associated cytokines in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 31 NMO, 29 MS and 18 other non-inflammatory neurological disorders patients. The serum levels of some cytokines/ chemokines were also measured. The correlations between clinical characteristics/laboratory findings and levels of cytokines/chemokines in NMO were examined.
Results: The CSF levels of interleukin (IL)-1 receptor antagonist, IL-6, IL-8, IL-13 and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor were significantly increased in NMO, while IL-9, fibroblast growth factor-basic, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, macrophage inflammatory protein-1-beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were increased in MS. IL-10 and interferon-gamma-inducible protein-10 were elevated in NMO and MS. In serum analyses, only the IL-6 level showed significant elevation in NMO. The CSF IL-6 level had a significant correlation with the CSF glial fibrillary acidic protein level and CSF cells, and a weak correlation with anti-aquaporin-4 antibody titers.
Conclusions: Different immunological status and pathophysiologies exist between NMO and MS, and IL-6 may play important roles in the pathogenesis of NMO.

Get full access to this article

View all access and purchase options for this article.

References

Wingerchuk DM , Hogancamp WF, O’Brien PC and Weinshenker BG The clinical course of neuromyelitis optica (Devic’s syndrome). Neurology 1999; 53: 1107 1114.
Wingerchuk DM , Lennon VA, Lucchinetti CF, Pittock SJ and Weinshenker BG The spectrum of neuromyelitis optica. Lancet Neurol 2007; 6: 805 815 .
Lennon VA, Kryzer TJ, Pittock SJ, Verkman AS and Hinson SR IgG marker of optic-spinal multiple sclerosis binds to the aquaporin-4 water channel. J Exp Med 2005; 202: 473 477.
Takahashi T. , Fujihara K., Nakashima I., Misu T., Miyazawa I., Nakamura M., et al. Anti-aquaporin-4 antibody is involved in the pathogenesis of NMO: a study on antibody titre. Brain 2007; 130: 1235 1243.
Roemer SF, Parisi JE, Lennon VA, Benarroch EE, Lassmann H., Bruck W., et al. Pattern-specific loss of aquaporin-4 immunoreactivity distinguishes neuromyelitis optica from multiple sclerosis. Brain 2007; 130: 1194 1205.
Misu T., Fujihara K., Kakita A., Konno H., Nakamura M., Watanabe S., et al. Loss of aquaporin 4 in lesions of neuromyelitis optica: distinction from multiple sclerosis. Brain 2007; 130: 1224 1234.
Ito S., Mori M., Makino T., Hayakawa S. and Kuwabara S. ‘‘Cloud-like enhancement’’ is a magnetic resonance imaging abnormality specific to neuromyelitis optica. Ann Neurol 2009; 66: 425 428.
Matsuoka T., Matsushita T., Kawano Y., Osoegawa M., Ochi H., Ishizu T., et al. Heterogeneity of aquaporin-4 autoimmunity and spinal cord lesions in multiple sclerosis in Japanese. Brain 2007 ; 130: 1206 1223.
Uzawa A., Mori M., Hayakawa S., Masuda S. and Kuwabara S. Different responses to interferon beta-1b treatment in patients with neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis. Eur J Neurol 2010; 17: 672 676.
Lucchinetti CF, Mandler RN, McGavern D., Bruck W., Gleich G., Ransohoff RM, et al. A role for humoral mechanisms in the pathogenesis of Devic’s neuromyelitis optica. Brain 2002; 125: 1450 1461.
Luster AD Chemokines-chemotactic cytokines that mediate inflammation. N Engl J Med 1998; 338: 436 445.
Sharief MK and Hentges R. Association between tumor necrosis factor-alpha and disease progression in patients with multiple sclerosis. N Engl J Med 1991; 325: 467 472.
Sharief MK and Thompson EJ Correlation of interleukin-2 and soluble interleukin-2 receptor with clinical activity of multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1993; 56: 169 174.
Link J., Soderstrom M., Olsson T., Hojeberg B., Ljungdahl A. and Link H. Increased transforming growth factor-beta, interleukin-4, and interferon-gamma in multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol 1994; 36: 379 386.
van Boxel-Dezaire AH, Hoff SC, van Oosten BW, Verweij CL, Drager AM, Ader HJ, et al. Decreased interleukin-10 and increased interleukin-12p40 mRNA are associated with disease activity and characterize different disease stages in multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol 1999; 45: 695 703.
Franciotta D., Martino G., Zardini E., Furlan R., Bergamaschi R., Andreoni L., et al. Serum and CSF levels of MCP-1 and IP-10 in multiple sclerosis patients with acute and stable disease and undergoing immunomodulatory therapies. J Neuroimmunol 2001; 115: 192 198.
Narikawa K. , Misu T., Fujihara K., Nakashima I., Sato S. and Itoyama Y. CSF chemokine levels in relapsing neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis. J Neuroimmunol 2004; 149: 182 186.
Ishizu T., Osoegawa M., Mei FJ, Kikuchi H., Tanaka M., Takakura Y., et al. Intrathecal activation of the IL-17/ IL-8 axis in opticospinal multiple sclerosis. Brain 2005; 128: 988 1002.
Matusevicius D., Kivisäkk P., He B., Kostulas N., Ozenci V., Fredrikson S., et al. Interleukin-17 mRNA expression in blood and CSF mononuclear cells is augmented in multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler 1999; 5: 101 104.
Lock C., Hermans G., Pedotti R., Brendolan A., Schadt E., Garren H., et al. Gene-microarray analysis of multiple sclerosis lesions yields new targets validated in autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Nat Med 2002; 8: 500 508.
Tanaka M., Matsushita T., Tateishi T., Ochi H., Kawano Y., Mei FJ, et al. Distinct CSF cytokine/chemokine profiles in atopic myelitis and other causes of myelitis. Neurology 2008 ; 71: 974 981.
Yanagawa K., Kawachi I., Toyoshima Y., Yokoseki A., Arakawa M., Hasegawa A., et al. Pathologic and immunologic profiles of a limited form of neuromyelitis optica with myelitis. Neurology 2009; 73: 1628 1637.
Uzawa A., Mori M., Ito M., Uchida T., Hayakawa S., Masuda S., et al. Markedly increased CSF interleukin-6 levels in neuromyelitis optica, but not in multiple sclerosis. J Neurol 2009; 256: 2082 2084.
Wingerchuk DM, Lennon VA, Pittock SJ, Lucchinetti CF and Weinshenker BG Revised diagnostic criteria for neuromyelitis optica. Neurology 2006; 66: 1485 1489.
Hayakawa S. , Mori M., Okuta A., Kamegawa A., Fujiyoshi Y., Mitsuoka K., et al. Neuromyelitis optica and anti-aquaporin-4 antibodies measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. J Neuroimmunol 2008; 196: 181 187.
McDonald WI , Compston A., Edan G., Goodkin D., Hartung HP, Lublin FD, et al. Recommended diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis: guidelines from the International Panel on the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol 2001; 50: 121 127.
Correale J. and Fiol M. Activation of humoral immunity and eosinophils in neuromyelitis optica. Neurology 2004; 63: 2363 2370.
Weaver CT, Hatton RD, Mangan PR and Harrington LE IL-17 family cytokines and the expanding diversity of effector T cell lineages . Annu Rev Immunol 2007; 25: 821 852 .
Onishi RM and Gaffen SL Interleukin-17 and its target genes: mechanisms of interleukin-17 function in disease. Immunology 2010; 129: 311 321.
Wang GY, Sun B., Kong QF, Zhang Y., Li R., Wang JH, et al. IL-17 eliminates the therapeutic effects of myelin basic protein-induced nasal tolerance in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by activating IL-6. Scand J Immunol 2008; 68: 89 97 .
Iwakura Y. and Ishigame H. The IL-23/IL-17 axis in inflammation. J Clin Invest 2006; 116: 1218 1222.
Fossiez F., Djossou O., Chomarat P., Flores-Romo L., Ait-Yahia S., Maat C., et al. T cell interleukin-17 induces stromal cells to produce proinflammatory and hematopoietic cytokines. J Exp Med 1996 ; 183: 2593 2603.
Van Wagoner NJ, Oh JW, Repovic P. and Benveniste EN Interleukin-6 (IL-6) production by astrocytes: autocrine regulation by IL-6 and the soluble IL-6 receptor. J Neurosci 1999; 19: 5236 5244.
Misu T., Takano R., Fujihara KT, Takahashi T., Sato S. and Itoyama Y. Marked increase in cerebrospinal fluid glial fibrillar acidic protein in neuromyelitis optica: an astrocytic damage marker. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2009; 80: 575 577.
Lee HK, Seo IA, Suh DJ, Hong JI, Yoo YH and Park HT Interleukin-6 is required for the early induction of glial fibrillary acidic protein in Schwann cells during Wallerian degeneration. J Neurochem 2009; 108: 776 786.
Jarius S., Aboul-Enein F., Waters P., Kuenz B., Hauser A., Berger T., et al. Antibody to aquaporin-4 in the long-term course of neuromyelitis optica. Brain 2008; 131: 3072 3080.
Quintana A. , Muller M., Frausto RF, Ramos R., Getts DR, Sanz E., et al. Site-specific production of IL-6 in the central nervous system retargets and enhances the inflammatory response in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Immunol 2009; 183: 2079 2088.
Eugster HP, Frei K., Kopf M., Lassmann H. and Fontana A. IL-6-deficient mice resist myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-induced autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Eur J Immunol 1998; 28: 2178 2187.
Linker RA, Lühder F., Kallen KJ, Lee DH, Engelhardt B., Rose-John S., et al. IL-6 transsignalling modulates the early effector phase of EAE and targets the blood brain barrier. J Neuroimmunol 2008; 205: 64 72.
Kaplin AI, Deshpande DM, Scott E., Krishnan C., Carmen JS, Shats I., et al. IL-6 induces regionally selective spinal cord injury in patients with the neuroinflammatory disorder transverse myelitis. J Clin Invest 2005; 115: 2731 2741.

Cite article

Cite article

Cite article

OR

Download to reference manager

If you have citation software installed, you can download article citation data to the citation manager of your choice

Share options

Share

Share this article

Share with email
EMAIL ARTICLE LINK
Share on social media

Share access to this article

Sharing links are not relevant where the article is open access and not available if you do not have a subscription.

For more information view the SAGE Journals article sharing page.

Information, rights and permissions

Information

Published In

Article first published online: August 25, 2010
Issue published: December 2010

Keywords

  1. chemokine
  2. cytokine
  3. glial fibrillary acidic protein
  4. immunohistochemical staining
  5. interleukin-6
  6. multiple sclerosis
  7. neuromyelitis optica

Rights and permissions

© The Author(s) 2010.
Request permissions for this article.

History

Published online: August 25, 2010
Issue published: December 2010
PubMed: 20739337

Authors

Affiliations

Akiyuki Uzawa
Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Japan, [email protected]
Masahiro Mori
Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Japan
Kimihito Arai
Department of Neurology, Chiba-East National Hospital, Japan
Yasunori Sato
Clinical Research Center, Chiba University Hospital, Japan
Sei Hayakawa
Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Japan
Saeko Masuda
Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Japan
Junko Taniguchi
Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Japan
Satoshi Kuwabara
Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Japan

Metrics and citations

Metrics

Journals metrics

This article was published in Multiple Sclerosis Journal.

VIEW ALL JOURNAL METRICS

Article usage*

Total views and downloads: 555

*Article usage tracking started in December 2016

Altmetric

See the impact this article is making through the number of times it’s been read, and the Altmetric Score.
Learn more about the Altmetric Scores


Articles citing this one

Web of Science: 211 view articles Opens in new tab

Crossref: 227

  1. Analysis of LAP+ and GARP+ Treg subsets in peripheral blood of patient...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  2. The pathogenic role of lupus-specific autoantibodies and Interleukin-6...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  3. Glial fibrillary acidic protein as a biomarker in neuromyelitis optica...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  4. Novel CSF Biomarkers Tracking Autoimmune Inflammatory and Neurodegener...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  5. A real-world study of interleukin-6 receptor blockade in patients with...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  6. Increased formation of neutrophil extracellular traps in patients with...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  7. The cytokines interleukin-6 and interferon-α induce distinct microglia...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  8. Targeting B cell dysregulation with emerging therapies in autoimmune d...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  9. Cytokines/chemokines and immune checkpoint molecules in anti-leucine-r...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  10. Increased peripheral inflammatory responses in myelin oligodendrocyte ...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  11. Microglia shield the murine brain from damage mediated by the cytokine...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  12. Anti-IL-6 therapies in central nervous system inflammatory demyelinati...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  13. Long-term safety of satralizumab in neuromyelitis optica spectrum diso...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  14. Complete Relief of Painful Tonic Seizures in Neuromyelitis Optica Spec...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  15. Immuno-pathogenesis of neuromyelitis optica and emerging therapies
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  16. IL-6 as a marker for NMOSD disease activity
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  17. NMO-IgG Induce Interleukin-6 Release via Activation of the NF-κB Signa...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  18. Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder: From Basic Research to Clinica...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  19. What Should We Do after the COVID-19 Vaccination? Vaccine-Associated D...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  20. Exploring steroid tapering in patients with neuromyelitis optica spect...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  21. SARS-CoV-2 and Multiple Sclerosis: Potential for Disease Exacerbation
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  22. Experiencia con tocilizumab en pacientes con espectro de la neuromieli...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  23. Experience with tocilizumab in patients with neuromyelitis optica spec...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  24. Monoclonal Antibody Therapies Beyond Complement for NMOSD and MOGAD
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  25. Serum and Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers in Neuromyelitis Optica Spect...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  26. Serum molecular biomarkers in neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclero...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  27. Advances in the Treatment of Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  28. Possibilities of therapy for neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  29. Interleukin-6 Receptor Blockade in Treatment-Refractory MOG-IgG–Associ...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  30. A case of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders associated with prim...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  31. Association of Pain with Plasma C5a in Patients with Neuromyelitis Opt...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  32. Distinct Immunological Features of Inflammatory Demyelinating Diseases...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  33. An evaluation of the recognised systemic inflammatory biomarkers of ch...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  34. Regulatory T cells protect against brain damage by alleviating inflamm...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  35. Interleukin-6: evolving role in the management of neuropathic pain in ...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  36. Hope for patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders — from ...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  37. Uncommon inflammatory/immune-related myelopathies
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  38. New BBB Model Reveals That IL-6 Blockade Suppressed the BBB Disorder, ...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  39. A Comprehensive Review on the Role of Genetic Factors in Neuromyelitis...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  40. Satralizumab for the Treatment of Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disord...
    Go to citation Crossref Google ScholarPub Med
  41. EBI2-expressing B cells in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder with...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  42. Specific microglial phagocytic phenotype and decrease of lipid oxidati...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  43. Neuronal and glial CSF biomarkers in multiple sclerosis: a systematic ...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  44. Type I interferon detection in autoimmune diseases: challenges and cli...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  45. Treatment of Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorders
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  46. Th17-Related Cytokines as Potential Discriminatory Markers between Neu...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  47. Dynamic Changes in AQP4-IgG Level and Immunological Markers During Pro...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  48. Targeting interleukin-6 to treat neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorde...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  49. Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Patients with Neuromyelitis Optica: Case R...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  50. COVID-19 associated with encephalomyeloradiculitis and positive anti-a...
    Go to citation Crossref Google ScholarPub Med
  51. Investigation of serum biomarkers for neuropathic pain in neuromyeliti...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  52. New Therapeutic Landscape in Neuromyelitis Optica
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  53. Width of the third ventricle as a highly-sensitive biomarker in chroni...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  54. Interleukin-6 inhibition with tocilizumab for relapsing MOG-IgG associ...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  55. Advances in the Treatment of Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  56. Emerging Targeted Therapies for Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  57. Clostridium bolteae is elevated in neuromyelitis optica ...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  58. Drug Treatment of Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorders: Out with th...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  59. Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio on Admission is an Independent Risk Fac...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  60. Satralizumab: An Interleukin-6 Receptor-blocking Therapy for Neuromyel...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  61. A case of neuromyelitis optica associated with pulmonary Mycobacterium...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  62. New therapies for neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  63. Anti-IL-6 Therapies for Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorders: A Sys...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  64. Cerebrospinal Fluid Osteopontin and Inflammation-Associated Cytokines ...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  65. Serum level of IL-1β in patients with inflammatory demyelinating disea...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  66. Peroxiredoxins are involved in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis ...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  67. Effect of NMO-IgG on the interleukin-6 cascade in astrocytes via activ...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  68. Interleukin-6 in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder pathophysiolog...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  69. Purified IgG from aquaporin-4 neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder p...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  70. Metabolomic Profiling in Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder Biomar...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  71. Serum albumin level is associated with the severity of neurological dy...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  72. Moving beyond anti-aquaporin-4 antibodies: emerging biomarkers in the ...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  73. The S1P–S1PR Axis in Neurological Disorders—Insights into Current and ...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  74. Targeting IL-6 receptor in the treatment of neuromyelitis optica spect...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  75. Safety and efficacy of satralizumab monotherapy in neuromyelitis optic...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  76. Tacrolimus is effective for neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders wi...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  77. Effectiveness of subcutaneous tocilizumab in neuromyelitis optica spec...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  78. Changes in mitochondrial function in patients with neuromyelitis optic...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  79. Astrocyte and Oligodendrocyte Cross-Talk in the Central Nervous System
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  80. Neuroimmunologic disorders in pregnancy
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  81. Increased serum IL-36β and IL-36γ levels in patients with neuromyeliti...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  82. Anti-MOG autoantibodies pathogenicity in children and macaques demyeli...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  83. Trial of Satralizumab in Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  84. Prognostic Factors for Recovery of Vision in Canine Optic Neuritis of ...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  85. Blockade of IL-6 signaling in neuromyelitis optica
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  86. Pregnancy-Related Immune Changes and Demyelinating Diseases of the Cen...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  87. Proportions of Th17 cells and Th17-related cytokines in neuromyelitis ...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  88. Serum GFAP and neurofilament light as biomarkers of disease activity a...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  89. Elevated serum level of IL-4 in neuromyelitis optica and multiple scle...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  90. TLR-2 and TLR-4 agonists favor expansion of CD4+ T cell subsets implic...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  91. Cerebrospinal fluid light and heavy neurofilament level increased in a...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  92. Refractory Sjögren's syndrome myelopathy successfully treated with sub...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  93. Type 2 Inflammatory Responses in Autoimmune Demyelination of the Centr...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  94. Simulating the Impact of Elevated Levels of Interleukin-6 on the Pharm...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  95. Microglia responses to interleukin‐6 and type I interferons in neuroin...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  96. Distinct serum and cerebrospinal fluid cytokine and chemokine profiles...
    Go to citation Crossref Google ScholarPub Med
  97. Low levels of vitamin D and the relationship between vitamin D and Th2...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  98. Cell-Free Mitochondrial DNA in the CSF: A Potential Prognostic Biomark...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  99. Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorders
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  100. Resolution of inflammation in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  101. Tocilizumab in MOG-antibody spectrum disorder: a case report
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  102. The Roles of Regulatory T Cells in Central Nervous System Autoimmunity
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  103. Reduced expression of the IL7Ra signaling pathway in Neuromyelitis opt...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  104. CSF cytokine profile in MOG-IgG+ neurological disease is similar to AQ...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  105. MOG antibody disorders and AQP4 antibody NMO spectrum disorders share ...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  106. CSF and clinical data are useful in differentiating CNS inflammatory d...
    Go to citation Crossref Google ScholarPub Med
  107. Recombinant thrombomodulin ameliorates experimental autoimmune encepha...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  108. Differentiation of remitting neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders f...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  109. Advances in Biomarker-Guided Therapy for Pediatric- and Adult-Onset Ne...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  110. Cerebrospinal fluid pentraxin 3 and CD40 ligand in anti- N -menthyl- d...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  111. Treatment for paraneoplastic neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (N...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  112. The HMGB 1 is increased in C...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  113. Multiple sclerosis, and other demyelinating and autoimmune inflammator...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  114. Th2 axis-related cytokines in patients with neuromyelitis optica spect...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  115. Cytokines and Tissue Damage Biomarkers in First-Onset Neuromyelitis Op...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  116. Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders and pregnancy: Interactions an...
    Go to citation Crossref Google ScholarPub Med
  117. Increased frequency of IL-6-producing non-classical monocytes in neuro...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  118. What’s new in neuromyelitis optica? A short review for the clinical ne...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  119. Immune-Mediated CNS Diseases: a Review
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  120. Monoclonal antibody therapy for neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  121. First Pediatric Patient With Neuromyelitis Optica and Sjögren Syndrome...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  122. Increased cerebrospinal fluid metalloproteinase-2 and interleukin-6 ar...
    Go to citation Crossref Google ScholarPub Med
  123. Aquaporin-4 antibodies in patients treated with natalizumab for suspec...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  124. Expanding Role of T Cells in Human Autoimmune Diseases of the Central ...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  125. Risk of venous thromboembolism in neuromyelitis optica patients hospit...
    Go to citation Crossref Google ScholarPub Med
  126. Interleukin-6 analysis of 572 consecutive CSF samples from neurologica...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  127. Autoantibody-induced internalization of CNS AQP4 water channel and EAA...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  128. Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders: Emerging therapies
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  129. IL-22, GM-CSF and IL-17 in peripheral CD4+ T cell subpopulations durin...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  130. Increased Circulating T Follicular Helper Cells Are Inhibited by Ritux...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  131. Neutrophil perversion in demyelinating autoimmune diseases: Mechanisms...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  132. Modulation of Neuroinflammation in the Central Nervous System: Role of...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  133. Upregulation of Bcl-2 and Its Promoter Signals in CD4+ T Cells during ...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  134. Blood-Brain Barrier Dysfunction during Central Nervous System Autoimmu...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  135. Modeling Alexander disease with patient iPSCs reveals cellular and mol...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  136. Th17 cells in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder: a review
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  137. CD14+CD16++ monocytes are increased in patients with NMO and are selec...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  138. Low T3 syndrome in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder: Association...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  139. Seronegative neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder patients diagnosed...
    Go to citation Crossref Google ScholarPub Med
  140. Change in autoantibody and cytokine responses during the evolution of ...
    Go to citation Crossref Google ScholarPub Med
  141. Distinct intrathecal interleukin-17/interleukin-6 activation in anti-N...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  142. Cytokine Therapies in Neurological Disease
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  143. Decreased serum IL-27 and IL-35 levels are associated with disease sev...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  144. Experimental Neuromyelitis Optica Induces a Type I Interferon Signatur...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  145. NMO-Spektrum-Erkrankungen
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  146. The Immunology of Neuromyelitis Optica—Current Knowledge, Clinical Imp...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  147. B Cell, Th17, and Neutrophil Related Cerebrospinal Fluid Cytokine/Chem...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  148. Prediction of disease severity in neuromyelitis optica by the levels o...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  149. Cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases in the cerebrospinal fluid of ...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  150. Immunoinflammatory diseases of the central nervous system - the tale o...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  151. Intestinal Bacterial Antigens, Toxin-Induced Pathogenesis and Immune C...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  152. Peripheral Inflammation and Demyelinating Diseases
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  153. Novel Treatment
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  154. Neuromyelitis Optica: Diagnosis and Treatment
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  155. Present and Future Therapies in Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  156. CSF cytokines/chemokines as biomarkers in neuroinflammatory CNS disord...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  157. Th17 Cells Pathways in Multiple Sclerosis and Neuromyelitis Optica Spe...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  158. Cytokine and Chemokine Profiles in Patients with Neuromyelitis Optica ...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  159. The role of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in the pa...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  160. NFκB signaling drives pro-granulocytic astroglial responses to neuromy...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  161. Severely exacerbated neuromyelitis optica rat model with extensive ast...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  162. Hypersensitivity Responses in the Central Nervous System
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  163. Epstein-Barr virus persistence and reactivation in neuromyelitis optic...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  164. Anti-inflammatory effects of thymoquinone in activated BV-2 microglial...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  165. Markedly Increased IP-10 Production by Blood-Brain Barrier in Neuromye...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  166. Biomarkers for neuromyelitis optica
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  167. Relapse of neuromyelitis optica during pregnancy: Transition of the an...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  168. Association of circulating follicular helper T cells with disease cour...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  169. Interferon-β-related tumefactive brain lesion in a Caucasian patient w...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  170. Low Levels of Vitamin D in Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder: Ass...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  171. Biomarker Studies in Multiple Sclerosis: From Proteins to Noncoding RN...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  172. Pain in neuromyelitis optica—prevalence, pathogenesis and therapy
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  173. Cerebrospinal fluid aquaporin‐4 antibody levels in neuromyelitis optic...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  174. CD19 as a molecular target in CNS autoimmunity
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  175. Neuromyelitis optica and the evolving spectrum of autoimmune aquaporin...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  176. How do Th17 cells mediate autoimmune inflammation in the central nervo...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  177. Seronegative Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum - The challenges on disease...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  178. Serum cytokine and chemokine profiles in patients with myasthenia grav...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  179. Therapeutische Perspektiven der Neuromyelitis optica
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  180. Leptin hormone level in serum of opticospinal, neuromyelitisoptica and...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  181. Update on the diagnosis and treatment of neuromyelitis optica: Recomme...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  182. Cytokines and Chemokines in Neuromyelitis Optica: Pathogenetic and The...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  183. The Pathology of an Autoimmune Astrocytopathy: Lessons Learned from Ne...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  184. IL-6 as a target in autoimmune disease and inflammation
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  185. Neuromyelitis optica: Concept, immunology and treatment
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  186. Immunopathogenesis of Neuromyelitis Optica
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  187. Plasmablasts as Migratory IgG-Producing Cells in the Pathogenesis of N...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  188. Distinct serum apolipoprotein A-I levels in neuromyelitis optica and a...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  189. Intrastriatal injection of interleukin-1 beta triggers the formation o...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  190. T cell-activation in neuromyelitis optica lesions plays a role in thei...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  191. Clinical Spectrum and Treatment of Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disor...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  192. Post-acute serum eosinophil and neutrophil-associated cytokine/chemoki...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  193. Role of Th17 cells in the pathogenesis of CNS inflammatory demyelinati...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  194. High in vitro immune reactivity to Escherichia coli in neuromyelitis o...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  195. Monitoring neuromyelitis optica activity
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  196. NMO sera down-regulate AQP4 in human astrocyte and induce cytotoxicity...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  197. Upbeat nystagmus at caudal brainstem lesions in four cases with multip...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  198. Role of interleukin-6 in the pathogenesis of neuromyelitis optica
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  199. Monoclonal antibodies in neuroinflammatory diseases
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  200. Cerebrospinal fluid interleukin-6 and glial fibrillary acidic protein ...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  201. Evaluation of Cytokines in Multiple Sclerosis Patients Treated with Me...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  202. Characteristic Cerebrospinal Fluid Cytokine/Chemokine Profiles in Neur...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  203. Cytokines, cytokine antagonists, and soluble adhesion molecules in ped...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  204. Tocilizumab: An Updated Review of Its Use in the Treatment of Rheumato...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  205. The Ex Vivo Production of IL-6 and IL-21 by CD4+ T Cells is Directly A...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  206. Aquaporins, anti-aquaporin-4 autoantibodies and neuromyelitis optica
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  207. Role of Regulatory T Cells in Pathogenesis and Biological Therapy of M...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  208. A case of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder developing a fulminan...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  209. Increase of complement fragment C5a in cerebrospinal fluid during exac...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  210. Molecular Pathogenesis of Neuromyelitis Optica
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  211. Immunologyof MS
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  212. Review of animal models of neuromyelitis optica
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  213. When is neuromyelitis optica diagnosed after disease onset?
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  214. Aquaporin 4‐specific T cells in neuromyelitis optica exhibit a Th17 bi...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  215. Neuromyelitis optica should be classified as an astrocytopathic diseas...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  216. Comparison of the Cytokine Profiles of Patients With Neuronal-Antibody...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  217. Protective effect of an elastase inhibitor in a neuromyelitis optica-l...
    Go to citation Crossref Google ScholarPub Med
  218. Neutrophil protease inhibition reduces neuromyelitis optica-immunoglob...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  219. Therapeutic Targeting of the Interleukin-6 Receptor
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  220. Immunotherapeutic implication of IL-6 blockade
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  221. Ex vivo spinal cord slice model of neuromyelitis optica reveals novel ...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  222. Tocilizumab, a humanized anti-interleukin-6 receptor antibody, for the...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  223. Therapy in clinical practice
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  224. Diagnosis, pathogenesis, and treatment of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) s...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  225. Interferon-β exacerbates Th17-mediated inflammatory disease
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  226. Biomarkers of disease activity in multiple sclerosis
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  227. Relapse of Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder Associated with Intr...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar

Figures and tables

Figures & Media

Tables

View Options

Get access

Access options

If you have access to journal content via a personal subscription, university, library, employer or society, select from the options below:


Alternatively, view purchase options below:

Purchase 24 hour online access to view and download content.

Access journal content via a DeepDyve subscription or find out more about this option.

View options

PDF/ePub

View PDF/ePub