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First published online December 4, 2016

Measurement of Adherence in Pharmacy Administrative Databases: A Proposal for Standard Definitions and Preferred Measures

Abstract

Abstract

Background:

A variety of measures have been developed to calculate refill adherence from administrative data such as pharmacy claims databases. These measures have focused on improving the accuracy of adherence measures or clarifying the evaluation time frame. As a result, there are many measures used to assess adherence that may or may not be comparable or accurate.

Objective:

To compare available refill adherence measures.

Methods:

A systematic literature review was conducted to identify current or recently used measures of calculating adherence from administrative data. A MEDLINE search (January 1990–March 2006) was undertaken using the search terms adherence or compliance in the title combined with administrative, pharmacy, or records in any field, including subheadings medical, nursing, and hospital records. Non-English articles were excluded. Seven hundred fifteen articles were available for review. Review articles and letters were excluded from measure selection, but were included in the search terms and used to identify additional research articles. Adherence measures were excluded if they were incompletely described, produced non-numeric values, or were duplicates. Eleven refill adherence measures were identified and compared using data from the LOSE Weight (Long-term Outcomes of Sibutramine Effectiveness on Weight) study. Measures compared include Continuous Measure of Medication Acquisition (CMA); Continuous Multiple Interval Measure of Oversupply (CMOS); Medication Possession Ratio (MPR); Medication Refill Adherence (MRA); Continuous Measure of Medication Gaps (CMG); Continuous, Single Interval Measure of Medication Aquisition (CSA); Proportion of Days Covered (PDC); Refill Compliance Rate (RCR); Medication Possession Ratio, modified (MPRm); Dates Between Fills Adherence Rate (DBR); and Compliance Rate (CR).

Results:

The results suggest that the CMA, CMOS, MPR, and MRA are identical in terms of measuring adherence to prescription refills throughout the study period, each with a value of 63.5%; CMG and PDC are slightly lower (63.0%) and are equivalent to MRA when oversupply is truncated. CR, MPRm, RCR, and CSA result in higher adherence values of 84.4%, 86.6%, 104.8%, and 109.7%, respectively.

Conclusions:

Five measures produce equivalent results for measuring prescription refill adherence over the evaluation period. Of these, MRA has the fewest calculations, is easily truncated if one desires to exclude surplus medication issues, and requires the least amount of data. MRA is therefore recommended as the preferred measure of adherence using administrative data.

Resumen

Introducción:

Se han desarrollado varios métodos de medida para calcular la adherencia a los tratamientos prescritos partir de datos administrativos como las bases de datos de recetas dispensadas en las farmacias. Estos métodos de medición se han centrado en mejorar la precisión de las medidas de la adherencia o en clarificar la evaluación de la secuencia temporal. En consecuencia, hay muchos métodos de medición de la adherencia que pueden o no ser comparables o precisos.

Objetivo:

Comparar los métodos de medida de la adherencia a los tratamientos prescritos disponibles.

Métodos:

Se realizo una revisión sistemática para identificar métodos actuales o recientemente utilizados para calcular la adherencia a partir de datos administrativos. Se hizo una búsqueda en MEDLINE (enero 1990–marzo 2006) utilizando los términos adherence o compliance en el título combinados con administrative, pharmacy, or records en cualquier campo, incluyendo los subheadings medical, nursing, and hospital records. Se excluyeron los artículos no publicados en inglés. Se localizaron setecientos quince artículos disponibles para su revisión. Se excluyeron los artículos de revisión y la cartas a la hora de seleccionar los métodos de medida, pero se incluyeron en los términos de busqueda y se utilizaron para localizar artículos de investigación adicionales. Se excluyeron los métodos de medida de la adherencia cuya descripción era incompleta, producían variables no numéricas o estaban duplicados. Se identificaron y compararon 11 métodos de medición de la adherencia utilizando datos del Estudio Resultados a largo plazo de la Efectividad de Sibutramina en el peso (LOSE Weight). Los métodos comparados fueron; Medida Continua de la Adquisición de Medicación (CMA); Medida Continua de los intervalos múltiples de Sobreabastecimiento de Medicación (CMOS); Ratio de Posesión de Medicación (MPR); Adherencia a la Reposición de Medicación (MRA); Medida Continua de los Intervalos de Medicación (CMG); Medida Continua del Intervalo Único de Adquisición de Medicación (CSA); Tasa de Cumplimiento con la Reposición de Medicación (RCR); Ratio de Posesión de Medicación, modificado (MPRm), Tasa de Adherencia a las Fechas de Reposición de Medicación (DBR) y Tasa de Cumplimiento (CR).

Resultados:

Los resultados sugieren que la CMA, CMOS, MPR, and MRA fueron métodos idénticos de medir la adherencia a los tratamientos prescritos a lo largo del período de estudio, cada uno con un valor del 63.5%; CMG y PDC obtienen valores algo más bajos (63.0%) y son equivalentes al MRA cuando se trunca el sobreabastecimiento de medicación. CR, MPRm, RCR, y CSA obtienen mayores valores para la adherencia: 84.4%, 86.6%, 104.8%, y 109.7%, respectivamente.

Conclusiones:

Cinco métodos de medida produjeron resultados equivalentes en la medición de la adherencia a los tratamientos prescritos a lo largo del período de evaluación. De ellos, MRA es el que menos cálculos precisa, es fácil de truncar si se desea excluir los casos de sobreabastecimiento, y requiere el menos volumen de datos. MRA es por tanto el método recomendado para medir la adherencia a partir de datos administrativos.

Résumé

Objectif:

Comparer les différentes échelles d'adhérence lors du renouvellement d'une ordonnance.

Méthodes:

Une revue systématique de la littérature a été effectuée afin d'identifier les échelles utilisées pour mesurer l'adhérence dans les banques de données. Une recherche MEDLINE de janvier 1990 à mars 2006 a été effectuée en utilisant les mots clés adhérence, observance dans le titre associé avec les termes suivants -administration, pharmacie ou dossiers en incluant les sous titres médical, dossiers hospitaliers, soins infirmiers. Seuls les articles rédigés en anglais ont été retenus et 715 articles disponibles pour évaluation. Les articles de revues et les lettres à l'éditeur ont été exclus pour évaluation mais ont été utilisés pour tenter d'identifier des articles de recherche. Les mesures d'adhérence ont été exclues si elles étaient décrites de façon incomplète ou s'il ne s'agissait pas de la version originale. Onze échelles d'adhérence lors du renouvellement d'une ordonnance ont été identifiées et comparées en utilisant les données de l'étude d'efficacité à long terme de la sibutramine. (étude LOSE). Les échelles étaient les suivantes: Continuous Measure of Medication Acquisition (CMA); Continuous Multiple Interval Measure of Oversupply (CMOS); Medication Possession Ratio (MPR); Medication Refill Adherence (MRA); Continuous Measure of Medication Gaps (CMG); Continuous, Single Interval Measure of Medication Aquisition (CSA); Refill Compliance Rate (RCR); Medication Possession Ratio, modified (MPRm), Dates Between Fills Adherence Rate (DBR) and Compliance Rate (CR).

Résultats:

Les résultats suggèrent que les échelles CMA, CMOS, MPR, et MRA étaient identiques lors du renouvellement d'une ordonnance durant la période de l'étude, avec une valeur de 635%; les échelles CMG et PDC ont obtenu une valeur de 63.0% et étaient équivalentes à l'échelle de MRA lorsque le surplus était tronqué. Par contre, les échelles CR, MPRm, RCR, et CSA ont obtenu des résultats plus élevées soit 84.4%, 86.6%, 104.8%, et 109.7%, respectivement.

Conclusions:

Cinq échelles ont démontré des résultats semblables afin de mesurer l'adhérence lors du renouvellement d'une ordonnance durant la période de l'étude. L'échelle de MRA était plus facile à utiliser au niveau de calculs, était plus facilement tronquée si on voulait exclure les données quant au surplus de médicaments et demandait moins de données à analyser. Les auteurs recommandent donc l'échelle de MRA pour évaluer l'adhésion au traitement lors du renouvellement d'une ordonnance.

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Information

Published In

Article first published online: December 4, 2016
Issue published: July/August 2006

Keywords

  1. adherence
  2. administrative data
  3. compliance
  4. measurement

Rights and permissions

© 2006 Harvey Whitney Books Company.
Request permissions for this article.

History

Issue published: July/August 2006
Published online: December 4, 2016
PubMed: 16868217

Authors

Affiliations

Lisa M Hess, MA MS
Science Officer
Arizona Cancer Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ
Marsha A Raebel, PharmD
Pharmacotherapy Research Manager
Kaiser Permanente of Colorado, Denver, CO; Clinical Associate Professor, School of Pharmacy, University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center, Denver
Douglas A Conner, PhD
Senior Research Analyst
Kaiser Permanente of Colorado
Daniel C Malone, PhD
Associate Professor
College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona

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