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First published online March 13, 2019

Punishment Beyond the Deportee: The Collateral Consequences of Deportation


Deportations from the United States reached record highs in the aftermath of the Great Recession (2007-2009). At the peak of this wave of deportations, over 400,000 people were deported from the United States—as many in 1 year as in the entire decade of the 1980s. The majority of these deportees have U.S. citizen family members, nearly all of whom continue to live in the United States. Over 90% of these deportees are men, and nearly all are sent to Latin America, creating gendered and raced consequences for specific communities. This article draws from interviews with 27 people from California who experienced the deportation of a family member to provide insight into the effects of deportation on these families. This article builds on scholarship on the collateral consequences of incarceration to enhance our understanding of the collateral consequences of deportation. The findings reveal that family members face short, medium, and long-term consequences in the aftermath of a deportation and that many adolescents are forced to make an abrupt transition to adulthood when one or both of their parents is deported.

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Tanya Golash-Boza is a professor of Sociology at the University of California, Merced. She has published several books on race and immigration including: Deported: Immigrant Policing, Disposable Labor and Global Capitalism (NYU 2015), Forced out Fenced In: Immigration Tales from the Field (Oxford 2018), and Immigration Nation: Raids, Detentions, and Deportations in Post 9/11 America (Routledge 2015).

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Published In

Article first published online: March 13, 2019
Issue published: August 2019


  1. immigration enforcement
  2. deportations
  3. mass incarceration
  4. California

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© 2019 SAGE Publications.
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Published online: March 13, 2019
Issue published: August 2019



Tanya Golash-Boza


Tanya Golash-Boza, Department of Sociology, University of California, Merced, 5200 North Lake Road, Merced, CA 95343-5001, USA. Email: [email protected]

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This article was published in American Behavioral Scientist.


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