Skip to main content
Intended for healthcare professionals
Restricted access
Research article
First published online January 24, 2014

Coaching Scales: A Review of the Literature and Comparative Analysis

Abstract

The Problem

Given the relevance of scales for selecting managers, Peterson and Little called for an examination of scales used to measure coaching. However, there are few options from which to select validated scales used to measure coaching. Consequently, there appears to be a knowledge gap—little is known about the coaching scales that are available and how they have been validated and tested.

The Solution

A proposed solution to the issue is to (a) present a comprehensive review of the literature, identifying coaching scales; (b) analyze those scales, providing information on scale item development, reliability, and validation of available scales; and (c) compare and clarify the efficacy of those scales.

The Stakeholders

This literature review will benefit academic scholars, practitioners, and scholar-practitioners by supporting and encouraging their research. Identification and clarification of the existing scales, their focus, and validation processes can bridge the research/theory–practice gap.

Get full access to this article

View all access and purchase options for this article.

References

Agarwal R., Angst C. M., Magni M. (2009). The performance effects of coaching: A multilevel analysis using hierarchical linear modeling. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 20, 2110-2134.
American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, & National Council on Measurement in Education. (1999). Standards for educational and psychological testing. Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.
Baron L., Morin L. (2009). The coach-coachee relationship in executive coaching: A field study. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 20, 85-106.
Bowles S. V., Picano J. J. (2006). Dimensions of coaching related to productivity and quality of life. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 58, 232-239.
Burns N., Grove S. K. (2005). The practice of nursing research: Conduct, critique, and utilization (3rd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier.
Carey W., Phillipon D., Cummings G. (2011). Coaching models for leadership development: An integrative review. Journal of Leadership Studies, 5(1), 51-69.
Costello A. B., Osborne J. W. (2005). Best practices in exploratory factor analysis: Four recommendations for getting the most from your analysis. Practical Assessment, Research, and Evaluation, 10(7), 1-9.
D’Abate C. P., Eddy E. R., Tannenbaum S. I. (2003). What’s in a name? A literature-based approach to understanding mentoring, coaching, and other constructs that describe developmental interactions. Human Resource Development Review, 2, 360-384.
Egan T. (2013). Response to Nieminen et al.’s feature article on executive coaching and facilitated multisource feedback: Toward better understanding of a growing HRD practice. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 24(2), 177-183.
Ellinger A. D. (2013). Supportive supervisors as managerial coaching: Exploring their intersections. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 86, 310-316.
Ellinger A. D., Ellinger A. E., Keller S. B. (2003). Supervisory coaching behavior, employee satisfaction, and warehouse employee performance: A dyadic perspective in the distribution industry. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 14, 435-458.
Feggetter A. J. (2007). A preliminary evaluation of executive coaching: Does executive coaching work for candidates on a high potential development scheme. International Coaching Psychology Review, 2(2), 129-142.
Gilley A., Gilley J. W., Kouider E. (2010). Characteristics of managerial coaching. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 23(1), 53-70.
Grant A. M., Cavanaugh M. J. (2007). The goal focused coaching skills questionnaire: Preliminary findings. Social Behavior and Personality, 35, 751-760.
Grant A. M., Curtayne L., Burton G. (2009). Executive coaching enhances goal attainment, resilience and workplace well-being: A randomised controlled study. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 4, 396-407.
Gregory J. B., Levy P. E. (2010). Employee coaching relationships: Enhancing construct clarity and measurement. Coaching: An International Journal of Theory, Research and Practice, 3, 109-123.
Hagen M. (2010). Black belt coaching and project outcomes: An empirical investigation. Quality Management Journal, 17, 54-67.
Hair J. F., Black W. C., Babin B. J., Anderson R. E., Tatham R. L. (2006). Multivariate data analysis. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Hamlin R. G., Ellinger A. D., Beattie R. S. (2006). Coaching at the heart of managerial effectiveness: A cross-cultural study of managerial behavioral. Human Resource Development International, 9, 305-331.
Hasbrouck J. E., Christen M. H. (1997). Providing peer coaching in inclusive classrooms: A tool for consulting teachers. Intervention in School and Clinic, 32, 172-177.
Hayduk L. A. (1987). Structural equation modeling with LISREL. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Heslin P. A., Vandewalle D., Latham G. P. (2006). Keen to help? Managers’ implicit person theories and their subsequent employee coaching. Personnel Psychology, 59, 871-902.
Joo B. (2005). Executive coaching: A conceptual framework from an integrative review of practice and research. Human Resource Development Review, 4, 462-488.
Joyce B., Showers B. (1982). The coaching of teaching. Educational Leadership, 40(1), 4-10.
Kim S., Egan T., Kim W., Kim J. (2013). The impact of managerial coaching behavior on employee work-related reactions. Journal of Business and Psychology, 28, 315-330.
Kline R. B. (2011). Principles and practices of structural equation modeling (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Guilford.
Kohler F. W., Ezell H. K., Paluselli M. (1999). Promoting changes in teachers’ conduct of student pair activities an examination of reciprocal peer coaching. The Journal of Special Education, 33, 154-165.
Konczak L. J., Stelly D. J., Trusty M. L. (2000). Defining and measuring empowering leader behaviors: Development of an upward feedback instrument. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 60, 301-313.
Kowalski K., Casper C. (2007). The coaching process: An effective tool for professional development. Nursing Administration Quarterly, 31, 171-179.
Ladyshewsky R. K. (2010). Peer coaching. In Cox E., Bachkirova T., Clutterbuck D. A. (Eds.), The complete handbook of coaching (pp. 284-295). London, UK: Sage.
Liu X., Batt R. (2010). How supervisors influence performance: A multilevel study of coaching and group management in technology mediated services. Personnel Psychology, 63, 265-298.
McLean G. N., Yang B., Kuo M. H. C., Tolbert A. S., Larkin C. (2005). Development and initial validation of an instrument measuring managerial coaching skill. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 16, 157-178.
National Institute of Health. (2012). PROMIS instrument development and psychometric standards. Silver Spring, MD: Author.
Neubert G. A., Bratton E. C. (1987). Team coaching: Staff development side by side. Educational Leadership, 44(5), 29-32.
Park S., McLean G. N., Yang B. (2008, February 20-24). Revision and validation of an instrument measuring managerial coaching skills in organizations. Proceedings of the Academy of Human Resource Development, Panama City, FL.
Peterson D., Little B. (2005). Invited reaction: Development and initial validation of an instrument measuring managerial coaching skills. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 16, 179-184.
Pintrich P. R., Smith D. A., García T., McKeachie W. J. (1993). Reliability and predictive validity of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ). Educational and Psychological Measurement, 53, 801-813.
Rovai A. P., Baker J. D., Ponton M. K. (2012). Social science research design and statistics: A practitioner’s guide to research methods and SPSS analysis. Chesapeake, VA: Watertree Press.
Smither J. W., London M., Flautt R., Vargas Y., Kucine I. (2003). Can working with an executive coach improve multisource feedback ratings over time? A quasi-experimental field study. Personnel Psychology, 56, 23-44.
Stalmeijer R. E., Dolmans D. H., Wolfhagen I. H., Muijtjens A. M., Scherpbier A. J. (2008). The development of an instrument for evaluating clinical teachers: Involving stakeholders to determine content validity. Medical Teacher, 30, 272-277.
Swanson R. A., Holton E. F. (2005). Research in organizations: Foundations and methods of inquiry. San Francisco, CA: Barrett-Koehler.
Torraco R. (2005). Writing integrative literature reviews: Guidelines and examples. Human Resource Development Review, 4, 356-367.
Waddell D. L., Dunn N. (2005). Peer coaching: The next step in staff development. The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 36(3), 84-89.
Wageman R., Hackman J. R., Lehman E. (2005). Team diagnostic survey: Development of an instrument. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 41, 373-398.
Yaris J. S., Yoon E., Amenuke M., Simien-Turner S., Landers G. (2012). Assessment of PTSD in older veterans: The Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist: Military version (PCL-M). Advances in Social Work, 13, 185-202.

Biographies

Marcia S. Hagen is an associate professor and interim director of the DBA program at Metropolitan State University in Minneapolis, Minnesota. She received her PhD from the University of Minnesota in Human Resource Development. Her areas of research interest include six sigma, organizational behavior, and managerial coaching.
Shari L. Peterson is an associate Professor of HRD and coordinator of Human Resource Education programs at the University of Minnesota. She received her PhD in Education from the University of Minnesota. Her research interests include strategic HRD, employee turnover, and organizational learning.

Cite article

Cite article

Cite article

OR

Download to reference manager

If you have citation software installed, you can download article citation data to the citation manager of your choice

Share options

Share

Share this article

Share with email
EMAIL ARTICLE LINK
Share on social media

Share access to this article

Sharing links are not relevant where the article is open access and not available if you do not have a subscription.

For more information view the SAGE Journals article sharing page.

Information, rights and permissions

Information

Published In

Article first published online: January 24, 2014
Issue published: May 2014

Keywords

  1. coaching scale
  2. survey instrument
  3. literature review

Rights and permissions

© The Author(s) 2014.
Request permissions for this article.

History

Published online: January 24, 2014
Issue published: May 2014

Authors

Affiliations

Marcia S. Hagen
Metropolitan State University, Minneapolis, MN, USA
Shari L. Peterson
University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA

Notes

Marcia S. Hagen, Metropolitan State University, 1501 Hennepin Ave., Minneapolis, MN 55403, USA. Email: [email protected]

Metrics and citations

Metrics

Journals metrics

This article was published in Advances in Developing Human Resources.

VIEW ALL JOURNAL METRICS

Article usage*

Total views and downloads: 1373

*Article usage tracking started in December 2016

Articles citing this one

Web of Science: 0

Crossref: 16

  1. Providing strategic leadership for learning: optimizing managerial coa...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  2. Impact of managerial coaching skills on employee commitment: the role ...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  3. Wer kann, der coacht: Ein Instrument zur Messung interpersoneller Coac...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  4. Development and validation of the coaching-based leadership scale and ...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  5. Demonstrating the Value of Workplace Positive Psychology Coaching Usin...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  6. The Impact of Loyalty and Self‐Determination on Managerial Coaching Ou...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  7. Dimensions of effective sales coaching: scale development and validati...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  8. Linking Managerial Coaching and Leader–Member Exchange on Work Engagem...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  9. Antecedents influencing the coaching behaviors of emergency life-savin...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  10. The nature of peer coaching: definitions, goals, processes and outcome...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  11. Exploratory Study Examining the Joint Impacts of Mentoring and Manager...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  12. Does Coaching Matter? A Multilevel Model Linking Managerial Coaching S...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  13. Gender and managerial coaching across cultures: female managers are co...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  14. An initial assessment of measurement invariance in sales force coachin...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  15. The Moderating Effects of Managerial Coaching between Job Characterist...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  16. Coaching Education: Coming of Age
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar

Figures and tables

Figures & Media

Tables

View Options

Get access

Access options

If you have access to journal content via a personal subscription, university, library, employer or society, select from the options below:


Alternatively, view purchase options below:

Purchase 24 hour online access to view and download content.

Access journal content via a DeepDyve subscription or find out more about this option.

View options

PDF/ePub

View PDF/ePub

Full Text

View Full Text