Skip to main content
Intended for healthcare professionals
Restricted access
Research article
First published online January 5, 2012

Linking Process and Outcome in the Study of Emotion and Aging

Abstract

Current theory and research on emotion and aging suggests that (a) older adults report more positive affective experience (more happiness) than younger adults, (b) older adults attend to and remember emotionally valenced stimuli differently than younger adults (i.e., they show age-related positivity effects in attention and memory), and (c) the reason that older adults have more positive affective experience is because the positivity effects they display serve as emotion regulatory strategies. It is suggested that age differences in cognitive processes therefore lead to the outcome of positive affective experience. In this article, we critically review the literature on age differences in positive affective experience and on age-related positivity effects in attention and memory. Furthermore, we question the extent to which existing evidence supports a link between age-related positivity effects and positive affective outcomes. We then provide a framework for formally testing process-outcome links that might explain affective outcomes across adulthood. It may be that older adults (and others) do sometimes use their cognition as a regulatory tool to help them feel good, but that can only be demonstrated by specifically linking cognitive processes, such as age-related positivity effects, with affective outcomes. These concepts have implications for cognition–emotion links at any age.

Get full access to this article

View all access and purchase options for this article.

References

Allard E. S., Isaacowitz D. M. (2008). Are preferences in emotional processing affected by distraction? Examining the age-related positivity effect in visual fixation within a dual-task paradigm. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, 15, 725–743.
Allard E. S., Wadlinger H. A., Isaacowitz D. M. (2010). Positive gaze preferences in older adults: Assessing the role of cognitive effort with pupil dilation. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, 17, 296–311.
Bakalar N. (2010, May 31). Happiness may come with age, study says. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2010/06/01/health/research/01happy.html?_r=1&;scp=1&sq=happiness%20may%20come%20with%20age&st=cse
Baltes P. B. (1987). Theoretical propositions of life-span developmental psychology: On the dynamics between growth and decline. Developmental Psychology, 23, 611–626.
Birditt K. S., Fingerman K. L. (2005). Do we get better at picking our battles? Age group differences in descriptions of behavioral reactions to interpersonal tensions. Journals of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 60B, 121–128.
Blanchard-Fields F. (2007). Everyday problem solving and emotion: An adult developmental perspective. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16, 26–31.
Brandstädter J., Wentura D., Greve W. (1993). Adaptive resources of the aging self: Outlines of an emergent perspective. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 16, 323–349.
Cacioppo J. T., Bernston G. G., Bechara A., Tranel D., Hawkley L. C. (2011). Could an aging brain contribute to subjective well being: The value added by a social neuroscience perspective. In Todorov A., Fiske S. T., Prentice D. (Eds.), Social neuroscience: Toward understanding the underpinnings of the social mind (pp. 249–262). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Carstensen L. L. (1992). Social and emotional patterns in adulthood: Support for socioemotional selectivity theory. Psychology and Aging, 7, 331–338.
Carstensen L. L. (1993). Motivation for social contact across the life span: A theory of socioemotional selectivity. In Jacobs J. E. (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation, 1992: Developmental perspectives on motivation (Vol. 40, pp. 209–254). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
Carstensen L. L. (2006). The influence of a sense of time on human development. Science, 312, 1913–1915.
Carstensen L. L., Gross J. J., Fung H. H. (1998). The social context of emotional experience. In Schaie K. W., Lawton M. P. (Eds.), Annual review of gerontology and geriatrics: Focus on emotion and adult development (Vol. 17, pp. 325–352). New York, NY: Springer Publishing Co.
Carstensen L. L., Isaacowitz D., Charles S. T. (1999). Taking time seriously: A theory of socioemotional selectivity. American Psychologist, 54, 165–181.
Carstensen L. L., Mikels J. A. (2005). At the intersection of emotion and cognition: Aging and the positivity effect. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 14, 117–121.
Carstensen L. L., Mikels J. A., Mather M. (2006). Aging and the intersection of cognition, motivation, and emotion. In Birren J., Schaie K. W. (Eds.), Handbook of the psychology of aging (6th ed., pp. 343–362). Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Academic Press.
Carstensen L. L., Pasupathi M., Mayr U., Nesselroade J. R. (2000). Emotional experience in everyday life across the adult life span. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79, 644–655.
Carstensen L. L., Turan B., Scheibe S., Ram N., Ersner-Hershfield H., Samanez-Larkin G. R., . . . Nesselroade J. R. (2011). Emotional experience improves with age: Evidence based on over 10 years of experience sampling. Psychology and Aging, 26, 21–33.
Charles S. T. (2010). Strength and vulnerability integration: A model of emotional well-being across adulthood. Psychological Bulletin, 136, 1068–1091.
Charles S. T., Carstensen L. L. (2007). Emotion regulation and aging. In Gross J. J. (Ed.), Handbook of emotion regulation (pp. 307–327). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Charles S. T., Carstensen L. L. (2008). Unpleasant situations elicit different emotional responses in younger and older adults. Psychology and Aging, 23, 495–504.
Charles S. T., Mather M., Carstensen L. L. (2003). Aging and emotional memory: The forgettable nature of negative images for older adults. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 132, 310–324.
Charles S. T., Piazza J. R. (2009). Age differences in affective well-being: Context matters. Social & Personality Psychology Compass, 3, 1–14.
Charles S. T., Reynolds C. A., Gatz M. (2001). Age-related differences and change in positive and negative affect over 23 years. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 136–151.
Consedine N. S. (2010). Capacities, targets, and tactics: Lifespan emotion regulation viewed from developmental functionalism. In Nyclicek I., Vingerhoets A. (Eds.), Emotion regulation and well-being (pp. 13–30). New York, NY: Springer.
Consedine N. S., Magai C., Bonanno G. A. (2002). Moderators of the emotion inhibition-health relationship: A review and research agenda. Review of General Psychology, 6, 204–228.
Diener E., Suh E. M., Lucas R. E., Smith H. L. (1999). Subjective well-being: Three decades of progress. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 276–302.
Dunne E., Wrosch C., Miller G. E. (in press). Goal disengagement, functional disability, and depressive symptoms in old age. Health Psychology.
Fernandes M., Ross M., Wiegand M., Schryer E. (2008). Are the memories of older adults positively biased? Psychology and Aging, 23, 297–306.
Fung H. H., Carstensen L. L. (2006). Goals change when life’s fragility is primed: Lessons learned from older adults, the September 11 attacks, and SARS. Social Cognition, 24, 248–278.
Gross J. J. (1998). The emerging field of emotion regulation: An integrative review. Review of General Psychology, 2, 271–299.
Gross J. J., Barrett L. F. (in press). Emotion generation and emotion regulation: One or two depends on your point of view. Emotion Review.
Grühn D., Smith J., Baltes P. B. (2005). No aging bias favoring memory for positive material: Evidence from a heterogeneity-homogeneity list paradigm using emotionally toned words. Psychology and Aging, 20, 579–588.
Heckhausen J., Schulz R. (1995). A life-span theory of control. Psychological Review, 102, 284–304.
Isaacowitz D. M., Noh S. R. (in press). Does looking at the positive mean feeling good? Age and individual differences matter. Social & Personality Psychology Compass.
Isaacowitz D. M., Riediger M. (2011). Introduction to the special section: When age matters. Developmental perspectives on “Cognition and Emotion.” Cognition & Emotion, 25, 957–967.
Isaacowitz D. M., Toner K., Goren D., Wilson H. (2008). Looking while unhappy: Mood congruent gaze in young adults, positive gaze in older adults. Psychological Science, 19, 848–853.
Isaacowitz D. M., Toner K., Neupert S. D. (2009). Use of gaze for real-time mood regulation: Effects of age and attentional functioning. Psychology and Aging, 24, 989–994.
Isaacowitz D. M., Wadlinger H. A., Goren D., Wilson H. R. (2006a). Is there an age-related positivity effect in visual attention? A comparison of two methodologies. Emotion, 6, 511–516.
Isaacowitz D. M., Wadlinger H. A., Goren D., Wilson H. R. (2006b). Selective preference in visual fixation away from negative images in old age? An eye-tracking study. Psychology and Aging, 21, 40–48.
Johnson D. R. (2009). Goal-directed attentional deployment to emotional faces and individual differences in emotional regulation. Journal of Research in Personality, 43, 8–13.
Keil A., Freund A. M. (2009). Changes in the sensitivity to appetitive and aversive arousal across adulthood. Psychology and Aging, 24, 668–680.
Kennedy Q., Mather M., Carstensen L. L. (2004). The role of motivation in the age-related positivity effect in autobiographical memory. Psychological Science, 15, 208–214.
Kensinger E. A. (2008). Age differences in memory for arousing and nonarousing emotional words. Journals of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 63B, 13–18.
Kensinger E. A., LeClerc C. M. (2009). Age-related changes in the neural mechanisms supporting emotional processing and emotional memory. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 21, 192–215.
Kensinger E. A., Piguet O., Krendl A. C., Corkin S. (2005). Memory for contextual details: Effects of emotion and aging. Psychology and Aging, 20, 241–250.
Kessler E.-M., Staudinger U. (2009). Affective experience in adulthood and old age: The role of affective arousal and perceived affect regulation. Psychology and Aging, 24, 349–362.
Knight M., Seymour T. L., Gaunt J. T., Baker C., Nesmith K., Mather M. (2007). Aging and goal-directed emotional attention: Distraction reverses emotional biases. Emotion, 7, 705–714.
Koole S. L. (2009). The psychology of emotion regulation: An integrative review. Cognition & Emotion, 23, 4–41.
Kryla-Lighthall N., Mather M. (2009). The role of cognitive control in older adults’ emotional well-being. In Bengston V. L., Gans D., Pulney N. M., Silverstein M. (Eds.), Handbook of theories of aging (p. 323–344). New York, NY: Springer.
Kunzmann U., Grühn D. (2005). Age differences in emotional reactivity: The sample case of sadness. Psychology and Aging, 20, 47–59.
Kunzmann U., Little T. D., Smith J. (2000). Is age-related stability of subjective well-being a paradox? Cross-sectional and longitudinal evidence from the Berlin Aging Study. Psychology and Aging, 15, 511–526.
Kuppens O., Oravecz Z., Tuerlinckx F. (2010). Feelings change: Accounting for individual differences in the temporal dynamics of affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 99, 1042–1060.
Kwon Y., Scheibe S., Samanez-Larkin G. R., Tsai J. L., Carstensen L. L. (2009). Replicating the positivity effect in picture memory in Koreans: Evidence for cross-cultural generalizability. Psychology and Aging, 24, 748–754.
Labouvie-Vief G., Grühn D., Studer J. (2010). Dynamic integration of emotion and cognition: Equilibrium regulation in development and aging. In Lerner R. M., Lamb M. E., Freund A. M. (Eds.), The handbook of life-span development: Vol. 2. Social and emotional development (pp. 79–115). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Labouvie-Vief G., Medler M. (2002). Affect optimization and affect complexity: Modes and styles of regulation in adulthood. Psychology and Aging, 17, 571–587.
Larcom M. J., Isaacowitz D. M. (2009). Rapid emotion regulation after mood induction: Age and individual differences. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 64B, 733–741.
Levenson R. W., Carstensen L. L., Friesen W. V., Ekman P. (1991). Emotion, physiology, and expression in old age. Psychology and Aging, 6, 28–35.
Levenson R. W., Carstensen L. L., Gottman J. M. (1994). Influence of age and gender on affect, physiology, and their interrelations: A study of long-term marriages. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 56–68.
Levine L. J., Bluck S. (1997). Experienced and remembered emotional intensity in older adults. Psychology and Aging, 12, 514–523.
Lockwood P. (2002). Could it happen to you? Predicting the impact of social comparisons on the self. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 343–358.
Mather M. (2010). Aging and cognition. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science, 1, 346–362.
Mather M., Carstensen L. L. (2003). Aging and attentional biases for emotional faces. Psychological Science, 14, 409–415.
Mather M., Knight M. (2005). Goal-directed memory: The role of cognitive control in older adults’ emotional memory. Psychology and Aging, 20, 554–570.
Mather M., Knight M. R., McCaffrey M. (2005). The allure of the alignable: Younger and older adults’ false memories of choice features. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 134, 38–51.
Mikels J. A., Larkin G. R., Reuter-Lorenz P. A., Carstensen L. L. (2005). Divergent trajectories in the aging mind: Changes in working memory for affective versus visual information with age. Psychology and Aging, 20, 542–553.
Moors A., de Houwer J. (2006). Automaticity: A theoretical and conceptual analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 297–326.
Mroczek D. K., Kolarz C. M. (1998). The effect of age on positive and negative affect: A developmental perspective on happiness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 1333–1349.
Murphy N. A., Isaacowitz D. M. (2008). Preferences for emotional information in older and younger adults: A meta-analysis of memory and attention tasks. Psychology and Aging, 23, 263–286.
Noh S. R., Lohani M., Isaacowitz D. M. (2011). Deliberate real-time mood regulation in adulthood: The importance of age, fixation and attentional functioning. Cognition & Emotion, 25, 998–1013.
Opitz P. C., Rauch L. C., Terry D. P., Urry H. L. (in press). Prefrontal mediation of age differences in cognitive reappraisal. Neurobiology of Aging.
Richards J. M., Gross J. J. (2000). Emotion regulation and memory: The cognitive costs of keeping one’s cool. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79, 410–424.
Riediger M., Schmiedek F., Wagner G. G., Lindenberger U. (2009). Seeking pleasure and seeking pain: Differences in prohedonic and contra-hedonic motivation from adolescence to old age. Psychological Science, 20, 1529–1535.
Rothermund K., Brandstädter J. (2003). Coping with deficits and losses in later life: From compensatory action to accommodation. Psychology and Aging, 18, 896–905.
Rozin P., Royzman E. B. (2001). Negativity bias, negativity dominance, and contagion. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 5, 296–320.
Ryff C. D. (1995). Psychological well-being in adult life. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 4, 99–104.
Scheibe S., Blanchard-Fields F. (2009). Effects of regulating emotions on cognitive performance: What is costly for young adults is not so costly for older adults. Psychology and Aging, 24, 217–223.
Scheibe S., Carstensen L. L. (2010). Emotional aging: Recent findings and future trends. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 65B, P135–P144.
Schlagman S., Schulz J., Kvavilashvili L. (2006). A content analysis of involuntary autobiographical memories: Examining the positivity effect in old age. Memory, 14, 161–175.
Sheppes G., Meiran N. (2007). Better late than never? On the dynamics of online regulation of sadness using distraction and cognitive reappraisal. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33, 1518–1532.
Shiota M. N., Levenson R. W. (2009). Effects of aging on experimentally instructed detached reappraisal, positive reappraisal, and emotional behavior suppression. Psychology and Aging, 24, 890–900.
Stanley J. T., Isaacowitz D. M. (2011). Age-related differences in profiles of mood-change trajectories. Developmental Psychology, 47, 318–330.
Tamir M. (2009). What do people want to feel and why? Pleasure and utility in emotion regulation. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 18, 101–105.
Tamir M., John O. P., Srivastava S., Gross J. J. (2007). Implicit theories of emotion: Affective and social outcomes across a major life transition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92, 731–744.
Teachman B. A., Gordon T. (2009). Age differences in anxious responding: Older and calmer, unless the trigger is physical. Psychology and Aging, 24, 703–714.
Thomas R. C., Hasher L. (2006). The influence of emotional valence on age differences in early processing and memory. Psychology and Aging, 21, 821–525.
Urry H. L. (2010). Seeing, thinking, and feeling: Emotion-regulating effects of gaze-directed cognitive reappraisal. Emotion, 10, 125–135.
Urry H. L., Gross J. J. (2010). Emotion regulation in older age. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 19, 352–357.
Wilson E., MacLeod C. (2003). Contrasting two accounts of anxiety-linked attentional bias: Selective attention to varying levels of stimulus threat intensity. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 112, 212–218.
Wood S., Kisley M. A. (2006). The negativity bias is eliminated in older adults: Age-related reduction in event-related brain potentials associated with evaluative categorization. Psychology and Aging, 21, 815–820.
Wrosch C., Miller G. E. (2009). Depressive symptoms can be useful: Self-regulatory and emotional benefits of dysphoric mood in adolescence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96, 1181–1190.

Cite article

Cite article

Cite article

OR

Download to reference manager

If you have citation software installed, you can download article citation data to the citation manager of your choice

Share options

Share

Share this article

Share with email
EMAIL ARTICLE LINK
Share on social media

Share access to this article

Sharing links are not relevant where the article is open access and not available if you do not have a subscription.

For more information view the SAGE Journals article sharing page.

Information, rights and permissions

Information

Published In

Article first published online: January 5, 2012
Issue published: January 2012

Keywords

  1. cognition
  2. development
  3. aging
  4. emotion/affect

Rights and permissions

© Association for Psychological Science 2012.
Request permissions for this article.

History

Issue published: January 2012
Published online: January 5, 2012
PubMed: 22888369

Authors

Affiliations

Derek M. Isaacowitz
Department of Psychology, Brandeis University
Fredda Blanchard-Fields
School of Psychology, Georgia Institute of Technology

Notes

Derek M. Isaacowitz, who is now at Department of Psychology, Northeastern University, 125 Nightingale Hall, 360 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115-5000 E-mail: [email protected]

Metrics and citations

Metrics

Journals metrics

This article was published in Perspectives on Psychological Science.

VIEW ALL JOURNAL METRICS

Article usage*

Total views and downloads: 1815

*Article usage tracking started in December 2016

Altmetric

See the impact this article is making through the number of times it’s been read, and the Altmetric Score.
Learn more about the Altmetric Scores


Articles citing this one

Web of Science: 123 view articles Opens in new tab

Crossref: 104

  1. The Age-Related Positivity Effect and Emotion Regulation: Assessing Do...
    Go to citation Crossref Google ScholarPub Med
  2. Do older adults construct more emotionally gratifying social environme...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  3. What Do We Know About Aging and Emotion Regulation?
    Go to citation Crossref Google ScholarPub Med
  4. Emotion regulation across the lifespan: age differences in intraperson...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  5. The Role of Positive and Negative Information Processing in COVID-19 V...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  6. Influence of age diversity on organization performance at Kenya urban ...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  7. Rethinking Social Relationships in Adulthood: The Differential Investm...
    Go to citation Crossref Google ScholarPub Med
  8. Older and younger adults’ hindsight bias after positive and negative o...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  9. Aging and goal-directed cognition: Cognitive control, inhibition, and ...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  10. Socioemotional Selectivity Theory: The Role of Perceived Endings in Hu...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  11. Evidence for an Age-Related Positivity Effect in Metacognitive Judgmen...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  12. Age Differences in Sexual Minority Stress and the Importance of Friend...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  13. The appraisal approach to aging and emotion: An integrative theoretica...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  14. The neuroscience of positive emotions and affect: Implications for cul...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  15. Personality and stress
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  16. Investigation and Analysis of Life Meaning, Mental Health and Intentio...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  17. The Relationship between Life Meaning Sense and Mental Health of Physi...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  18. Positivity in Younger and in Older Age: Associations With Future Time ...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  19. Effect of Emotion on Prospective Memory in Those of Different Age Grou...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  20. Heart Rate Variability Predicts Older Adults’ Avoidance of Negativity
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  21. Words matter: age-related positivity in episodic memory for abstract b...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  22. The limited roles of cognitive capabilities and future time perspectiv...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  23. Positive and Detached Reappraisal of Threatening Music in Younger and ...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  24. Emotion Regulation in Adulthood and Old Age: A Cognitive Aging Perspec...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  25. Changes in Social and Emotional Well-Being over the Lifespan
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  26. Age Differences in Negative, but Not Positive, Rumination
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  27. The influence of motivational priority on younger and older adults’ po...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  28. Motivations for Volunteerism, Satisfaction, and Emotional Exhaustion: ...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  29. The mediating and moderating role of affective rumination between work...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  30. Age-Related Differences in Savoring Across Adulthood: The Role of Emot...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  31. Predicting real-world behaviour: Cognition-emotion links across adulth...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  32. Age differences in negative and positive expectancy bias in comorbid d...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  33. When Do Older Adults Show a Positivity Effect in Emotional Memory?
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  34. Profiles in emotional aging: does age matter?
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  35. Choosing Solitude: Age Differences in Situational and Affective Correl...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  36. The Role of Personality in the Assessment of Subjective and Physiologi...
    Go to citation Crossref Google ScholarPub Med
  37. Cognitive emotion regulation in adulthood and old age: positive gaze p...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  38. The positivity effect: a negativity bias in youth fades with age
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  39. Older adults’ neural activation in the reward circuit is sensitive to ...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  40. The Influence of Negative Emotion on Cognitive and Emotional Control R...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  41. Linking the Positivity Effect in Attention with Affective Outcomes: Ag...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  42. Age Differences in the Experience of Daily Life Events: A Study Based ...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  43. Le paradoxe de l’âge : une revue critique des modèles explicatifs
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  44. Moderators of age effects on attention bias toward threat and its asso...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  45. Older adults' attentional deployment: Differential gaze patterns for d...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  46. Le paradoxe de l’âge : une revue critique des modèles explicatifs
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  47. Do work beliefs moderate the relationship between work interruptions, ...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  48. Situation selection across adulthood: the role of arousal
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  49. Associations Among Individuals’ Perceptions of Future Time, Individual...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  50. Evaluative ratings and attention across the life span: emotional arous...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  51. Age-Related Effects on Memory for Social Stimuli: The Role of Valence,...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  52. When the “Golden Years” turn blue...
    Go to citation Crossref Google ScholarPub Med
  53. The Older Adult Positivity Effect in Evaluations of Trustworthiness: E...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  54. Attention, Emotion, and Well-Being: An Adult Lifespan Perspective
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  55. Emotional Development in Old Age
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  56. Positive Emotion Processing, Theoretical Perspectives
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  57. Age-Related Positivity Effect and Its Implications for Social and Heal...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  58. Age-related differences in processes organizing goal-directed locomoti...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  59. Influence of Core Affect in the Differential Efficacy of a Personality...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  60. Resilience at Information Processing Level in Older Adults: Maintained...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  61. Long-Term Development of Employee Well-Being: A Latent Transition Appr...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  62. Emotion regulation as a transdiagnostic factor in the development of i...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  63. Identifying attentional deployment tactics in older adults’ written na...
    Go to citation Crossref Google ScholarPub Med
  64. Age influences the relation between subjective valence ratings and emo...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  65. Age differences among older adults in the use of emotion regulation st...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  66. An Older-Age Advantage? Emotion Regulation and Emotional Experience Af...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  67. Analyzing Personal Happiness from Global Survey and Weather Data: A Ge...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  68. The Emotional Stroop as an Emotion Regulation Task
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  69. The longitudinal development of employee well-being: a systematic revi...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  70. Relationship among Social Support, Depression and Subjective Well-Bein...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  71. Pourquoi le bonheur vient avec les années
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  72. Work engagement during life-span: The role of interaction outside the ...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  73. Attention to negative emotion is related to longitudinal social networ...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  74. Commentary on Mata and von Helversen: Foraging Theory as a Paradigm Sh...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  75. Compensating for age limits through emotional crossmodal integration
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  76. The best of both worlds: emotional cues improve prospective memory exe...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  77. Adult age differences in frequency estimations of happy and angry face...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  78. Examining the Positivity Effect in Autobiographical Memory Across Adul...
    Go to citation Crossref Google ScholarPub Med
  79. Expressive suppression and enhancement during music-elicited emotions ...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  80. From Adolescence to Old Age: Developmental Perspectives on the Extende...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  81. In the Pursuit of Emotionally Meaningful Goals: When Would the Older E...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  82. Emotional Development in Old Age
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  83. Positive Emotion Processing: Theoretical Perspectives
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  84. Age-Related Positivity Effect and Its Implications for Social and Heal...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  85. A Prospect Theory-Based Evaluation of Dual-Process Influences on Aging...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  86. Foreword∗∗© 2015 Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  87. Ambulatory Assessment in the Research on Aging: Contemporary and Futur...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  88. Development of the Crying Proneness Scale: Associations Among Crying P...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  89. Age Similarities in Recognizing Threat From Faces and Diagnostic Cues
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  90. Memory Compensation in Older Adults: The Role of Health, Emotion Regul...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  91. Shifting positivity ratios: emotions and psychological health in later...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  92. Selective Engagement of Cognitive Resources...
    Go to citation Crossref Google ScholarPub Med
  93. Optimistic update bias increases in older age
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  94. Age differences in managing response to sadness elicitors using attent...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  95. Emotional aging: a discrete emotions perspective
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  96. Cognitive Reserve and Emotional Stimuli in Older Individuals: Level of...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  97. Differences between young and older adults’ spoken language production...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  98. Aging: Commentary: Change in Perceptions of Personality Disorder in La...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  99. Automatic Information Processing Bias to Stress Factors by Older Adult...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  100. The Future of Emotion Regulation Research: Capturing Context
    Go to citation Crossref Google ScholarPub Med
  101. Intraindividual Variability and Stability of Affect and Well-Being
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  102. Beyond Age Comparisons: A Plea for the Use of a Modified Brunswikian A...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar
  103. Mood Regulation in Real Time: Age Differences in the Role of Looking
    Go to citation Crossref Google ScholarPub Med
  104. The influence of context on the implementation of adaptive emotion reg...
    Go to citation Crossref Google Scholar

Figures and tables

Figures & Media

Tables

View Options

Get access

Access options

If you have access to journal content via a personal subscription, university, library, employer or society, select from the options below:

APS members can access this journal content using society membership credentials.

APS members can access this journal content using society membership credentials.


Alternatively, view purchase options below:

Purchase 24 hour online access to view and download content.

Access journal content via a DeepDyve subscription or find out more about this option.

View options

PDF/ePub

View PDF/ePub

Full Text

View Full Text